Red Russian cement was very popular in former USSR countries and unfortunately still in use in some cases. The main reason to apply it in the past was canal curvature not possible to pass through. If one been retreated cement is found in coronal and middle third whereas apical third is free of filling and contains necrotic tissues. In spite of the fact that canals look empty they are not and cases like these may be successfully treated by surgical approach. Especially if coronal seal is good.